Chronicle (New)

February 20th, 2018

Package:
Chronicle
Summary:
Append arbitrary data to a storage container
Groups:
Cryptography, Logging, PHP 7, Security, Utilities and Tools
Author:
Scott Arciszewski
Description:
This package can be used to append arbitrary data to a storage container...

Read more at https://www.phpclasses.org/package/10613-PHP-Append-arbitrary-data-to-a-storage-container.html

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How to Lose a Pound

February 20th, 2018

For anyone looking to lose there is one magic number that is really the important one ‘1 pound’ all you really want to do to lose is to lose a pound a few times. so what does losing a pound take?

How to Lose a PoundFirst of all there are lots of ways that people fake this out.

Zero calorie or negative calorie foods I believe do not really exist but, one thing does work and that is changing your balance between the calories that you eat and the calories that your body burns.

So in saying that there is one number that makes sense for losing a pound.

There are 3500 calories in a pound. Now if you want to lose a pound a week that means that you need to burn 500 calories a day more than you are burning now or eat 500 calories a day less than you are now (really why not do a balance between the two).

500 calories either way, starting today.

Here are some workouts that would burn 500 calories

  • Walking 75 minutes will burn 500 calories
  • Bootcamp workout for 40 minutes will burn 500 calories
  • Strength Training fast for 40 minutes will burn 500 calories
  • Swimming laps for 40 minutes will burn 500 calories

Here are some foods that are 500 calories

  • Bagel with Cream Cheese is about 500 calories
  • 1 waffle with syrup is about 500 calories
  • Large Fries from McDonalds is about 500 calories
  • 4 slices of bacon is about 500 calories
  • A venti Carmel Frap with whip cream from Starbucks is about 500 calories

So there are a few ways to get that magical 500 calories less in your mouth or expended out on the road or in the gym. Get started today and you will be closer tomorrow.

 

No Related Fitness, health, and Weight Loss Posts

Article source: https://www.fitnesstipsforlife.com/how-to-lose-a-pound.html

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Five supplements that claim to speed up weight loss — and what the science says

February 19th, 2018

Weight loss supplements might not deliver the miracle results they promise, write the University of Newcastle’s Clare Collins, Lee Ashton and Rebecca Williams for The Conversation.

When you google “weight loss” the challenge to sort fact from fiction begins. These five supplements claim to speed up weight loss, but let’s see what the evidence says.

1. Raspberry ketones

Raspberry ketones, sold as weight loss tablets, are chemicals found in red raspberries responsible for that distinct raspberry flavour and smell. You can also make raspberry ketones in a lab.

A study in obese rats found raspberry ketones reduced their total body fat content. In one study, 70 adults with obesity were put on a weight loss diet and exercise program, and randomised to take a supplement containing either raspberry ketones, or other supplements such as caffeine or garlic, or a placebo.

Only 45 participants completed the study. The 27 who took a supplement lost about 1.9 kilos, compared to 400 grams in the 18 in the placebo group. The drop-out rate was so high that these results need to be interpreted with a lot of caution.

A small pilot study of five adults found no effect on weight when the participants were told to maintain their current eating and exercise patterns and just took supplements of 200mg/day of raspberry ketones.

Concerns have been raised about potential toxic effects of raspberry ketones on the heart and for reproduction.

Verdict: Fiction! Leave the raspberry ketone supplements on the shelf. Spend your money on foods that contain them, including fresh berries, kiwifruit, peaches, grapes, apples and rhubarb.

2. Matcha green tea powder

Matcha is a green tea made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis, or tea plant, but it’s processed into a green powder and can be mixed into liquids or food. Before the leaves are harvested, the tea plant is put in the shade for a few weeks, which increases the content of theanine and caffeine.

No studies have tested the effect of matcha on weight loss. A review of six studies using green tea preparations for weight loss over 12 weeks found a difference based on country. In studies conducted outside of Japan, people consuming green tea did not lose more weight than controls. In the eight studies conducted within Japan, the mean weight loss ranged from 200 grams to 3.5 kilos in favour of green tea preparations.

Verdict: Fiction! There are currently no studies testing whether matcha tea accelerates weight loss.

3. Garcinia cambogia supplements

Garcinia Cambogia is a tropical fruit that contains a large amount of Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA), claimed to aid weight loss.

In animal studies, HCA interferes with usual production of fatty acids. If this was transferred to humans it could theoretically make it harder to metabolise fat and speed up weight loss. Research studies in humans show this is not the case.

While one 12-week trial in overweight women randomised them to a low kilojoule diet, with or without HCA and found the HCA group lost significantly more weight (3.7 compared to 2.4 kilos for placebo), two other trials found no difference in weight loss.

A 12-week trial in 135 men and women found no difference in weight loss between the HCA group (3.2 kilos) and the placebo group (4.1 kilos). A ten-week trial in 86 men and women who were overweight and randomised to take either Garcinia Cambogia extract or placebo, but were not also put on a weight-loss diet, found minimal weight loss of 650 grams versus 680 grams, with no difference between groups.

Verdict: Fiction! Garcinia cambogia does not accelerate weight loss.

4. Caffeine supplements

Caffeine is claimed to increase your metabolic rate and therefore speed up weight loss. Research studies in volunteers of a healthy weight found an increase in metabolic rate, but it depended on the dose. The more caffeine supplements consumed, the more the metabolic rate went up.

The lowest caffeine dose of 100mg, the amount in one instant coffee, increased the average metabolic rate by nine calories per hour, while the 400mg dose, which is roughly equivalent to the caffeine found in two to three cups of barista-made coffee, increased metabolic rate by about 34 calories per hour over three hours.

When adults with obesity were given caffeine supplements at a dose of 8mg per kilo of body weight, there was an increase in metabolic rate of about 16% for up to three hours.

In a study in which adults with obesity were asked to follow a weight-loss diet, then randomised to receive either 200mg caffeine supplements three times a day for 24 weeks or a placebo supplement, there was no difference in weight change between groups. For the first eight weeks, the group taking caffeine supplements experienced side-effects of insomnia, tremor and dizziness.

Verdict: Fiction! While caffeine does speed up the body’s metabolic rate in the short-term, it does not speed up weight loss.

5. Alkaline water

Alkalising products are promoted widely. These include alkaline water, alkalising powders and alkaline diets. You’re supposed to measure the acidity of your urine and/or saliva to “assess” body acidity level. Urine usually has a slightly acidic pH (average is about pH6) – vegetables and fruit make it more alkaline, while eating meat makes it less so.

Saliva has a neutral pH of 7. Alkaline diets recommend you modify what you eat based on your urine or saliva pH, claiming a more alkaline pH helps digestion, weight loss and well-being.

But your stomach is highly acidic at a pH less than 3.5, with this acid helping breakdown food. It then moves into the small bowel for digestion and absorption where the pH increases to 4.5-5.0, which is still acidic.

Your body has finely controlled pH balancing mechanisms to make sure your blood pH stays between 7.35-7.45. If it did not, you would die.

On the positive side, alkaline diets encourage healthier eating by promoting plant based foods such as fruit and vegetables. There is some evidence lower intakes of foods of animal origin that contribute to acid load are associated with better long-term health.

Verdict: Fiction! There is no scientific evidence to support alkaline water or powders speeding up weight loss.

If you’d like to learn more about weight loss enrol in our free six week online course The Science of Weight Loss – Dispelling Diet Myths, here.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Article source: https://coach.nine.com.au/2018/01/31/07/25/weight-loss-supplements

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One Hash Salted Password (New)

February 18th, 2018

Package:
One Hash Salted Password
Summary:
Generate and check passwords using a salted hash
Groups:
Cryptography, PHP 5
Author:
Ákos Nikházy
Description:
This class can generate and check passwords using a salted hash...

Read more at https://www.phpclasses.org/package/10654-PHP-Generate-and-check-passwords-using-a-salted-hash.html

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From raspberry ketones to alkaline water, scientists reveal the truth behind 5 popular weight loss supplements

February 18th, 2018

When you search the internet for ‘weight loss’, the challenge to sort fact from fiction begins. 

From alkaline water to raspberry ketones, hundreds of websites claim to know of an obscure way to battle your bulging waistline.

Here, in a piece for The Conversation, three nutritional scientists have looked into the truth behind five popular supplements.

The academics, based at the University of Newcastle, Australia, have blasted all of the ones they have assessed.

Raspberry ketones, sold as weight loss tablets, are chemicals found in red raspberries responsible for that distinct raspberry flavour and smell

Raspberry ketones, sold as weight loss tablets, are chemicals found in red raspberries responsible for that distinct raspberry flavour and smell

1. RASPBERRY KETONES

Raspberry ketones, sold as weight loss tablets, are chemicals found in red raspberries responsible for that distinct raspberry flavour and smell. 

You can also make raspberry ketones in a lab.

A study in obese rats found raspberry ketones reduced their total body fat content. In one study, 70 adults with obesity were put on a weight loss diet and exercise program, and randomised to take a supplement containing either raspberry ketones, or other supplements such as caffeine or garlic, or a placebo.

Only 45 participants completed the study. The 27 who took a supplement lost about 1.9kg, compared to 400 grams in the 18 in the placebo group. The drop-out rate was so high that these results need to be interpreted with a lot of caution.

A small pilot study of five adults found no effect on weight when the participants were told to maintain their current eating and exercise patterns and just took supplements of 200mg/day of raspberry ketones.

Concerns have been raised about potential toxic effects of raspberry ketones on the heart and for reproduction.

Verdict: Fiction! Leave the raspberry ketone supplements on the shelf. Spend your money on foods that contain them, including fresh berries, kiwifruit, peaches, grapes, apples and rhubarb.

Matcha is a green tea made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis, or tea plant, but it’s processed into a green powder and can be mixed into liquids or food

Matcha is a green tea made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis, or tea plant, but it’s processed into a green powder and can be mixed into liquids or food

2. MATCHA GREEN TEA POWDER

Matcha is a green tea made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis, or tea plant, but it’s processed into a green powder and can be mixed into liquids or food. 

Before the leaves are harvested, the tea plant is put in the shade for a few weeks, which increases the content of theanine and caffeine.

No studies have tested the effect of matcha on weight loss. 

A review of six studies using green tea preparations for weight loss over 12 weeks found a difference based on country. In studies conducted outside of Japan, people consuming green tea did not lose more weight than controls. 

In the eight studies conducted within Japan, the mean weight loss ranged from 200 grams to 3.5kg in favour of green tea preparations.

Verdict: Fiction! There are currently no studies testing whether matcha tea accelerates weight loss.

Garcinia Cambogia is a tropical fruit that contains a large amount of Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA), claimed to aid weight loss

Garcinia Cambogia is a tropical fruit that contains a large amount of Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA), claimed to aid weight loss

3. GARCINIA CAMBOGIA SUPPLEMENTS

Garcinia Cambogia is a tropical fruit that contains a large amount of Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA), claimed to aid weight loss.

In animal studies, HCA interferes with usual production of fatty acids. 

If this was transferred to humans it could theoretically make it harder to metabolise fat and speed up weight loss. Research studies in humans show this is not the case.

While one 12-week trial in overweight women randomised them to a low kilojoule diet, with or without HCA and found the HCA group lost significantly more weight (3.7kg compared to 2.4kg for placebo), two other trials found no difference in weight loss.

A 12-week trial in 135 men and women found no difference in weight loss between the HCA group (3.2kg) and the placebo group (4.1kg). 

A ten-week trial in 86 men and women who were overweight and randomised to take either Garcinia Cambogia extract or placebo, but were not also put on a weight-loss diet, found minimal weight loss of 650g versus 680g, with no difference between groups.

Verdict: Fiction! Garcinia cambogia does not accelerate weight loss.

Caffeine is claimed to increase your metabolic rate and therefore speed up weight loss

Caffeine is claimed to increase your metabolic rate and therefore speed up weight loss

4. CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTS

Caffeine is claimed to increase your metabolic rate and therefore speed up weight loss. 

Research studies in volunteers of a healthy weight found an increase in metabolic rate, but it depended on the dose. 

The more caffeine supplements consumed, the more the metabolic rate went up.

The lowest caffeine dose of 100mg, the amount in one instant coffee, increased the average metabolic rate by nine calories per hour.

While the 400mg dose, which is roughly equivalent to the caffeine found in two to three cups of barista-made coffee, increased metabolic rate by about 34 calories per hour over three hours.

When adults with obesity were given caffeine supplements at a dose of 8mg per kilo of body weight, there was an increase in metabolic rate of about 16 per cent for up to three hours.

In a study in which adults with obesity were asked to follow a weight-loss diet, then randomised to receive either 200mg caffeine supplements three times a day for 24 weeks or a placebo supplement, there was no difference in weight change between groups. 

For the first eight weeks, the group taking caffeine supplements experienced side-effects of insomnia, tremor and dizziness.

Verdict: Fiction! While caffeine does speed up the body’s metabolic rate in the short-term, it does not speed up weight loss. 

Alkalising products are promoted widely. These include alkaline water, alkalising powders and alkaline diets

Alkalising products are promoted widely. These include alkaline water, alkalising powders and alkaline diets

5. ALKALINE WATER

Alkalising products are promoted widely. These include alkaline water, alkalising powders and alkaline diets. 

You’re supposed to measure the acidity of your urine and/or saliva to ‘assess’ body acidity level. 

Urine usually has a slightly acidic pH (average is about pH6) – vegetables and fruit make it more alkaline, while eating meat makes it less so.

Saliva has a neutral pH of 7. Alkaline diets recommend you modify what you eat based on your urine or saliva pH, claiming a more alkaline pH helps digestion, weight loss and well-being.

But your stomach is highly acidic at a pH less than 3.5, with this acid helping breakdown food. 

It then moves into the small bowel for digestion and absorption where the pH increases to 4.5-5.0, which is still acidic.

Your body has finely controlled pH balancing mechanisms to make sure your blood pH stays between 7.35-7.45. If it did not, you would die.

On the positive side, alkaline diets encourage healthier eating by promoting plant based foods such as fruit and vegetables. 

There is some evidence lower intakes of foods of animal origin that contribute to acid load are associated with better long-term health.

Verdict: Fiction! There is no scientific evidence to support alkaline water or powders speeding up weight loss.

The Conversation

Article source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-5330313/Scientists-blast-five-weight-loss-supplements.html

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Raw Foodism: A Short History Of Raw

February 18th, 2018

It could be said that raw foodism began many ages ago, since our prehistoric ancestors would have eaten an entirely raw diet before the discovery of the use of fire for cooking. In fact, many adherents of raw would argue that our bodies are designed for raw food and have never adapted to cooked.

There was no cooking stove in the garden of Eden, and the raw diet can be seen as one way of getting us back closer to the natural state that existed in those ancient times.

Where Raw Foodism Started

A raw vegan diet may have been followed by religious ascetics in many traditions in different periods in history. A notable example is the Belgian Saint Aibert, a Benedictine monk who lived to the age of 80 in the 11th and 12th centuries. However, raw foodism was hardly ever practiced for health reasons until the 20th century.

In the 20th century the scientist Arturi Virtanen discovered that when raw vegetables are chewed, enzymes are released in the mouth.

These enzymes are killed by cooking above 115 degrees Fahrenheit. Medical and biological science shows that enzymes are destroyed during digestion, but raw foodists argue that many benefits can be gained from these enzymes while they are in the mouth and upper stomach, before they reach the digestive juices.

Raw Foodism: A Short History Of Raw

Raw Foodism

Therefore a raw food movement began which proposed eating mainly or only foods that had not been heated above 115 degrees, which is warm enough to dry them but not hot enough to kill most living organisms. For this reason raw foods are often called living foods.

Pioneers of the Raw Food Diet

Early 20th century pioneers of the raw food movement included Ann Wigmore and Herbert Shelton. Ann Wigmore founded the Hippocrates Health Institute and promoted the beneficial effects of drinking wheatgrass juice. She died in 1994 at the age of 84 in a fire.

Herbert Shelton took the ideas of the Natural Hygiene movement of the 19th century and developed them into a raw food practice. He died in 1985 at the age of 90 from Parkinson’s Disease.

Raw foodism in the Natural Hygiene style is focused around getting most of your calories from fruit and avoiding the high fat content of some other raw diets.

Raw Energy: Eat Your Way To Radiant Health

In 1984 the raw food movement gained enormously in popularity following the publication of the book ‘Raw Energy: Eat Your Way To Radiant Health’ by the British writer Leslie Kenton in 1984.

While Kenton advocated 75% raw food in the diet, many later writers propose going 100% raw. Since then there has been a huge growth in interest and in publications, with many people now living and writing in the raw foodism movement both online and offline.

Article source: https://www.fitnesstipsforlife.com/raw-foodism-a-short-history-of-raw.html

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Attendance Login System (New)

February 18th, 2018

Package:
Attendance Login System
Summary:
Manage and authenticate company employees users
Groups:
Databases, PHP 5
Author:
Abed Nego Ragil Putra
Description:
This package can manage and authenticate company employees users...

Read more at https://www.phpclasses.org/package/10634-PHP-Manage-and-authenticate-company-employees-users.html

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Tai Chi to Help Arthritis

February 18th, 2018

Tai Chi to Help ArthritisA new study by The George Institute for International Health has found Tai Chi to have positive health benefits for musculoskeletal pain. The results of the first comprehensive analysis of Tai Chi suggest that it produces positive effects for improving pain and disability among arthritis sufferers.

The researchers are now embarking on a new trial to establish if similar benefits can be seen among people with chronic low back pain.

“This is the first robust evidence to support the beneficial effects of Tai Chi. Our study proves that Tai Chi relieves pain and disability among people with arthritis and shows a positive trend towards effects for overall physical health. We now want to see if these benefits are the same for people suffering from low back pain”, said author Dr Chris Maher at The George Institute.

What is Arthritis?

Musculoskeletal pain, such as that experienced by people with arthritis, places a severe burden on the patient and community and is recognised as an international health priority. Arthritis is the major cause of disability and chronic pain in Australia, with 3.85million Australians affected. Low back pain is the most prevalent and costly musculoskeletal condition in Australia, estimated to cost up to $1billion per annum with indirect costs exceeding $8billion.

“This research should reassure people with musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis to seek exercise to relieve the pain. The fact that Tai Chi is inexpensive, convenient, enjoyable and conveys other psychological and social benefits supports the use this type of intervention for pain conditions”, added Ms Amanda Hall, The George Institute.

What is Tai Chi?

Tai Chi is a form of exercise that is regularly practiced in China for general health purposes and has gained increasing popularity in North America and Australia and thus a growing body of research aimed at investigating its health benefits has emerged.

Tai Chi is a versatile activity that can be easily incorporated into people’s daily activities. Usually preformed in a group, Tai Chi can also be practiced individually, which differs from traditional exercise therapy approaches in clinic.

Article source: https://www.fitnesstipsforlife.com/tai-chi-to-hhelp-arthritis.html

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Weight loss supplements: Which ones work? – 9Coach – Nine

February 17th, 2018

Weight loss supplements might not deliver the miracle results they promise, write the University of Newcastle’s Clare Collins, Lee Ashton and Rebecca Williams for The Conversation.

When you google “weight loss” the challenge to sort fact from fiction begins. These five supplements claim to speed up weight loss, but let’s see what the evidence says.

1. Raspberry ketones

Raspberry ketones, sold as weight loss tablets, are chemicals found in red raspberries responsible for that distinct raspberry flavour and smell. You can also make raspberry ketones in a lab.

A study in obese rats found raspberry ketones reduced their total body fat content. In one study, 70 adults with obesity were put on a weight loss diet and exercise program, and randomised to take a supplement containing either raspberry ketones, or other supplements such as caffeine or garlic, or a placebo.

Only 45 participants completed the study. The 27 who took a supplement lost about 1.9 kilos, compared to 400 grams in the 18 in the placebo group. The drop-out rate was so high that these results need to be interpreted with a lot of caution.

A small pilot study of five adults found no effect on weight when the participants were told to maintain their current eating and exercise patterns and just took supplements of 200mg/day of raspberry ketones.

Concerns have been raised about potential toxic effects of raspberry ketones on the heart and for reproduction.

Verdict: Fiction! Leave the raspberry ketone supplements on the shelf. Spend your money on foods that contain them, including fresh berries, kiwifruit, peaches, grapes, apples and rhubarb.

2. Matcha green tea powder

Matcha is a green tea made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis, or tea plant, but it’s processed into a green powder and can be mixed into liquids or food. Before the leaves are harvested, the tea plant is put in the shade for a few weeks, which increases the content of theanine and caffeine.

No studies have tested the effect of matcha on weight loss. A review of six studies using green tea preparations for weight loss over 12 weeks found a difference based on country. In studies conducted outside of Japan, people consuming green tea did not lose more weight than controls. In the eight studies conducted within Japan, the mean weight loss ranged from 200 grams to 3.5 kilos in favour of green tea preparations.

Verdict: Fiction! There are currently no studies testing whether matcha tea accelerates weight loss.

3. Garcinia cambogia supplements

Garcinia Cambogia is a tropical fruit that contains a large amount of Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA), claimed to aid weight loss.

In animal studies, HCA interferes with usual production of fatty acids. If this was transferred to humans it could theoretically make it harder to metabolise fat and speed up weight loss. Research studies in humans show this is not the case.

While one 12-week trial in overweight women randomised them to a low kilojoule diet, with or without HCA and found the HCA group lost significantly more weight (3.7 compared to 2.4 kilos for placebo), two other trials found no difference in weight loss.

A 12-week trial in 135 men and women found no difference in weight loss between the HCA group (3.2 kilos) and the placebo group (4.1 kilos). A ten-week trial in 86 men and women who were overweight and randomised to take either Garcinia Cambogia extract or placebo, but were not also put on a weight-loss diet, found minimal weight loss of 650 grams versus 680 grams, with no difference between groups.

Verdict: Fiction! Garcinia cambogia does not accelerate weight loss.

4. Caffeine supplements

Caffeine is claimed to increase your metabolic rate and therefore speed up weight loss. Research studies in volunteers of a healthy weight found an increase in metabolic rate, but it depended on the dose. The more caffeine supplements consumed, the more the metabolic rate went up.

The lowest caffeine dose of 100mg, the amount in one instant coffee, increased the average metabolic rate by nine calories per hour, while the 400mg dose, which is roughly equivalent to the caffeine found in two to three cups of barista-made coffee, increased metabolic rate by about 34 calories per hour over three hours.

When adults with obesity were given caffeine supplements at a dose of 8mg per kilo of body weight, there was an increase in metabolic rate of about 16% for up to three hours.

In a study in which adults with obesity were asked to follow a weight-loss diet, then randomised to receive either 200mg caffeine supplements three times a day for 24 weeks or a placebo supplement, there was no difference in weight change between groups. For the first eight weeks, the group taking caffeine supplements experienced side-effects of insomnia, tremor and dizziness.

Verdict: Fiction! While caffeine does speed up the body’s metabolic rate in the short-term, it does not speed up weight loss.

5. Alkaline water

Alkalising products are promoted widely. These include alkaline water, alkalising powders and alkaline diets. You’re supposed to measure the acidity of your urine and/or saliva to “assess” body acidity level. Urine usually has a slightly acidic pH (average is about pH6) – vegetables and fruit make it more alkaline, while eating meat makes it less so.

Saliva has a neutral pH of 7. Alkaline diets recommend you modify what you eat based on your urine or saliva pH, claiming a more alkaline pH helps digestion, weight loss and well-being.

But your stomach is highly acidic at a pH less than 3.5, with this acid helping breakdown food. It then moves into the small bowel for digestion and absorption where the pH increases to 4.5-5.0, which is still acidic.

Your body has finely controlled pH balancing mechanisms to make sure your blood pH stays between 7.35-7.45. If it did not, you would die.

On the positive side, alkaline diets encourage healthier eating by promoting plant based foods such as fruit and vegetables. There is some evidence lower intakes of foods of animal origin that contribute to acid load are associated with better long-term health.

Verdict: Fiction! There is no scientific evidence to support alkaline water or powders speeding up weight loss.

If you’d like to learn more about weight loss enrol in our free six week online course The Science of Weight Loss – Dispelling Diet Myths, here.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Article source: https://coach.nine.com.au/2018/01/31/07/25/weight-loss-supplements

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5 Weight Loss Supplements That Science Shows Are a Waste of Money

February 17th, 2018

When you google “weight loss” the challenge to sort fact from fiction begins.

These five supplements claim to speed up weight loss, but let’s see what the evidence says.

1. Raspberry ketones

Raspberry ketones, sold as weight loss tablets, are chemicals found in red raspberries responsible for that distinct raspberry flavour and smell. You can also make raspberry ketones in a lab.

A study in obese rats found raspberry ketones reduced their total body fat content.

In one study, 70 adults with obesity were put on a weight loss diet and exercise program, and randomised to take a supplement containing either raspberry ketones, or other supplements such as caffeine or garlic, or a placebo.

Only 45 participants completed the study. The 27 who took a supplement lost about 1.9 kilos, compared to 400 grams in the 18 in the placebo group. The drop-out rate was so high that these results need to be interpreted with a lot of caution.

A small pilot study of five adults found no effect on weight when the participants were told to maintain their current eating and exercise patterns and just took supplements of 200 milligrams/day of raspberry ketones.

Concerns have been raised about potential toxic effects of raspberry ketones on the heart and for reproduction.

Verdict: Fiction! Leave the raspberry ketone supplements on the shelf. Spend your money on foods that contain them, including fresh berries, kiwifruit, peaches, grapes, apples and rhubarb.

2. Matcha green tea powder

Matcha is a green tea made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis, or tea plant, but it’s processed into a green powder and can be mixed into liquids or food.

Before the leaves are harvested, the tea plant is put in the shade for a few weeks, which increases the content of theanine and caffeine.

No studies have tested the effect of matcha on weight loss. A review of six studies using green tea preparations for weight loss over 12 weeks found a difference based on country. In studies conducted outside of Japan, people consuming green tea did not lose more weight than controls.

In the eight studies conducted within Japan, the mean weight loss ranged from 200 grams to 3.5 kilos in favour of green tea preparations.

Verdict: Fiction! There are currently no studies testing whether matcha tea accelerates weight loss.

3. Garcinia cambogia supplements

Garcinia cambogia is a tropical fruit that contains a large amount of Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA), claimed to aid weight loss.

In animal studies, HCA interferes with usual production of fatty acids. If this was transferred to humans it could theoretically make it harder to metabolise fat and speed up weight loss. Research studies in humans show this is not the case.

While one 12-week trial in overweight women randomised them to a low kilojoule diet, with or without HCA and found the HCA group lost significantly more weight (3.7 compared to 2.4 kilograms for placebo), two other trials found no difference in weight loss.

A 12-week trial in 135 men and women found no difference in weight loss between the HCA group (3.2 kilograms ) and the placebo group (4.1 kilograms).

A ten-week trial in 86 men and women who were overweight and randomised to take either Garcinia cambogia extract or placebo, but were not also put on a weight-loss diet, found minimal weight loss of 650 grams versus 680 grams, with no difference between groups.

Verdict: Fiction! Garcinia cambogia does not accelerate weight loss.

4. Caffeine supplements

Caffeine is claimed to increase your metabolic rate and therefore speed up weight loss.

Research studies in volunteers of a healthy weight found an increase in metabolic rate, but it depended on the dose. The more caffeine supplements consumed, the more the metabolic rate went up.

The lowest caffeine dose of 100 milligrams, the amount in one instant coffee, increased the average metabolic rate by nine calories per hour, while the 400 milligrams dose, which is roughly equivalent to the caffeine found in two to three cups of barista-made coffee, increased metabolic rate by about 34 calories per hour over three hours.

When adults with obesity were given caffeine supplements at a dose of 8 milligrams per kilo of body weight, there was an increase in metabolic rate of about 16 percent for up to three hours.

In a study in which adults with obesity were asked to follow a weight-loss diet, then randomised to receive either 200 milligrams of caffeine supplements three times a day for 24 weeks or a placebo supplement, there was no difference in weight change between groups.

For the first eight weeks, the group taking caffeine supplements experienced side-effects of insomnia, tremor and dizziness.

Verdict: Fiction! While caffeine does speed up the body’s metabolic rate in the short-term, it does not speed up weight loss.

5. Alkaline water

Alkalising products are promoted widely. These include alkaline water, alkalising powders and alkaline diets.

You’re supposed to measure the acidity of your urine and/or saliva to “assess” body acidity level. Urine usually has a slightly acidic pH (average is about pH6) – vegetables and fruit make it more alkaline, while eating meat makes it less so.

Saliva has a neutral pH of 7. Alkaline diets recommend you modify what you eat based on your urine or saliva pH, claiming a more alkaline pH helps digestion, weight loss and well-being.

But your stomach is highly acidic at a pH less than 3.5, with this acid helping breakdown food. It then moves into the small bowel for digestion and absorption where the pH increases to 4.5 – 5.0, which is still acidic.

Your body has finely controlled pH balancing mechanisms to make sure your blood pH stays between 7.35 – 7.45. If it did not, you would die.

On the positive side, alkaline diets encourage healthier eating by promoting plant based foods such as fruit and vegetables.

There is some evidence lower intakes of foods of animal origin that contribute to acid load are associated with better long-term health.

Verdict: Fiction! There is no scientific evidence to support alkaline water or powders speeding up weight loss.

Clare Collins, Professor in Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Newcastle; Lee Ashton, Postdoctoral research fellow, University of Newcastle, and Rebecca Williams, Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Newcastle.

This article was originally published by The Conversation. Read the original article.

Article source: https://www.sciencealert.com/science-weight-loss-supplements-health-claims

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